Is believing in 'God' reasonable?--Part 2
The Anthropic Evidence
(what can we deduce from our life-sustaining universe?)
This currently popular term in astronomy comes from the Greek word anthropos meaning ‘man’. The Anthropic Principle states that the universe was fitted from its moment of existence for life and is especially suited for the well being of mankind. It is a powerful argument that the universe was designed. Evolutionary theory believes it has an answer to "design" in biological systems by hypothesizing ongoing processes of mutation and natural selection.
Living things are said to change very slowly and improve with time. There are many fundamental problems with evolutionary theory, not the least of which is that in the case of the Anthropic Principle the theory provides no answer at all.
Whether describing tides, proton mass, or the earth's position in the solar system, a grand design presents itself from the very beginning. These phenomena don't mutate or change with time. The reality of this has forced some in secular science to propose that there are an infinite number of universes, each with a completely different set of physical properties. According to such thinking, our particular universe just happens to have conditions suitable for human life, and that is why we are here to enjoy it!
Of course, there is no way to detect any "other" universes or comprehend their underlying principles. That is why people, secular or religious, refer to our cosmic reality as a universe not a multi-verse, which is exactly what the Bible says! Also the fact that ‘something just happens to be here’ is not an explanation for why it is. Our universe contains everything, including the clear marks of the supremely intelligent design of our creator God.
The testimony of Max Planck, Nobel Prize winner and founder of modern physics
"According to everything taught by the exact sciences about the immense realm of nature, a certain order prevails--one independent of the human mind . . . this order can be formulated in terms of purposeful activity. There is evidence of an intelligent order of the universe to which both man and nature are subservient.”
Ps. 19:1—The heavens declare the glory of God, the skies proclaim the work of His hands.
The fine-tuning of the universe and solar system gives strong evidence for a Designer
• The electromagnetic coupling constant binds electrons to protons in atoms. If it was smaller, fewer electrons could be held. If it were larger, electrons would be held too tightly to bond with other atoms.
• The ratio of electron to proton mass is 1:1836. If this was larger or smaller, molecules could not form.
• Carbon and oxygen nuclei have finely tuned energy levels.
• If our sun were a different color (redder or bluer), photosynthesis would be impaired.
• Our sun is also the right mass and stability. If it was larger, its brightness would change too quickly and there would be unstable high-energy radiation. If it were smaller, our planet would be pulled closer to the sun making gravity so strong the tidal forces would disrupt the earth’s rotational period. Our days would slow to months and we would either freeze or burn.
• The earth's distance from the sun is crucial for a stable water cycle. Too far away, and most water would freeze; too close and most water would boil.
• Our atmosphere is a perfect mixture of gases of which oxygen comprises 21%. If it were 25% fires would erupt, if 15% we would all choke.
• If the gravitational force in the universe were lessened slightly (1 part in 10 followed by 40 zeros) the sun would not exist and the moon would crash into the earth or sheer off into space. A slight increase in gravity would cause our sun to burn too rapidly and erratically to sustain life.
• If the centrifugal force of planetary movements did not precisely balance the gravitational forces, nothing could be held in orbit around the sun.
• If the universe were expanding at a rate one millionth more slowly than it is, the temperature on earth would be 10,000 degrees C.
• If Jupiter were not in its current orbit, we would be bombarded with space material. It’s gravitational field acts like a cosmic vacuum cleaner protecting earth.
• If the thickness of the earth’s crust were greater, too much oxygen would be transferred to the crust to support life. If it were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would pollute the air and make life impossible.
• If the rotation of the earth took longer than 24 hours, temperature differences would be too great between night and day. If the rotation period were shorter atmospheric wind velocities would continually be around 1000 mph.
• The earth spins on its axis at a perfect 23 degrees, if it were altered slightly, the surface temperature of the earth would be to hot and seasons too erratic for life.
• If the atmospheric discharge (lightning) rate were greater, there would be too much fire destruction; if it were less, there would be too little nitrogen in the soil.
• If there were more seismic activity much life would be lost. If there were less, nutrients on the ocean floors and in river runoff would not be cycled back to the continents through tectonic uplift. Even earthquakes are necessary to sustain life.
• If the moon were closer to the earth, tides would be greatly increased. Ocean waves could sweep across the continents. The seas themselves might heat to the boiling point from the resulting friction. A more distant moon would reduce the tides and marine life would be endangered by the resulting stagnant water. Mankind would be in trouble because the oxygen in the air we breathe is replenished by marine plants.
• If there were no ozone layer the sun’s ultraviolet rays would kill all life in minutes.
The temperature of space just outside the atmosphere of the earth is 455 degrees Farenheit below 0 (-455 F). Considering most life, especially human, cannot survive sustained exposure without protection to temperatures below -40 F, from a naturalistic standpoint, it is beyond comprehension to discerne how life could have been on the earth before water or the atmosphere existed to support or sustain it with night temperatures at around -200.
That fact that life exists on our 'incubator earth' amidst the death-inducing environment of the universe, points to a Creator who fashioned the earth for that life-sustaining purpose.
The delicate balance of the universe has been described as being equal to 50,000 pencils simultaneously standing on their points not falling over.
Astronomer and former atheist Sir Fred Hoyle states
"A commonsense interpretation of the facts is that a super-intelligence has monkeyed with physics, as well as chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces in nature."
The incredible balance of multitudinous factors in the universe that makes life possible on earth points to ‘fine tuning’ by an intelligent Being. It leads one to believe that the universe was providentially crafted for our benefit. Nothing known to humans is capable of ‘pretuning’ the conditions of the universe to make life possible other than an intelligent Creator outside the creation itself. Or, to put it another way, the kind of specificity and order in the universe that makes life possible on earth is just the kind of effect that is know to come from an intelligent cause.
Could there be life on other planets?
From a purely statistical approach, the possibility that there is another planet anywhere in the universe with anthropic qualities like earth to support life is much smaller than a trillionth of a trillionth of one percent (less than .0000000000000000000000001%). Considering that the universe only has about a trillion galaxies each of which averages one hundred billion stars, statistics argue that not even one planet would be expected by natural processes alone to harbor life. Many astronomers such as Robert Rood and James Trefil, among others, are now deciding that given the above statistical probability, it is unlikely that life, especially intelligent life, exists anywhere else in the universe.
The issue is not that it seems impossible there isn’t life somewhere else in the universe, but it’s the fact that there shouldn’t be life anywhere in the universe!
The reality that life can only exist under such an impossibly precise set of circumstances points to a living Creator beyond the confines of our universe.